Star Trek Timeline
By James Dixon
This timeline is split into 20 parts, linked here:
         
         
Notes: including explanation of acronyms, etc.
12 November [reference stardate 0/6511.12]First contact occurs with the Vulcans when a "Franklin" series warp-drive probe encounters a Vulcan colony world. As they have already developed the warp drive, Vulcan techniques substantially improve on the original design. The S.S. "Cochrane" will be the first Earth ship to establish contact with the planet on stardate 1135.7 [FASA, EOM].
2066The Mizarians are conquered. In the next 300 years they will be conquered five more times [TNG 166].
2067The "Great Exodus" begins when the Totality is banished from the planet Alaj. They colonize the neighboring world Etolos [TNG #14].
A sublight nuclear waste ship is discarded by an unknown world. In three centuries it will reach Gamelan V [TNG 183].
The Saren contact the warring, pre-spaceflight planet Vemla. A trading agreement is established, providing the Vemlans with advanced technology, positronic microprocessors in particular [TNG #20]. The first Space Ark generation ship is built. Originally conceived as a huge interplanetary industrial spaceworks, its design flexibility was too narrow to keep pace with the rapidly evolving technology of the 21st Century. Instead it was cheaply purchased by a consortium of like-minded people who refitted it as a multi-generational colony ship. Ten such ships will be built and launched although only one of which (Terra Ten) is known to have survived [SFC].
2068, 01 JanuaryFrom the Pluto Research Station comes proof that we live in a pulsating universe, from senior astronomer Herbert Samuelson [SFC].
Diplomatic relations are established between Earth and Vulcan [GN 2].
July [reference stardate 0/6807] A delegation of Vulcan diplomats and scientists arrive on Terra to begin discussions of a formal alliance between Terra, Alpha Centauri, and Vulcan [FASA, SFC].
The last case of mind-rape is encountered and treated among the Ullians--until the 24th Century [TNG 212].
2069Ralph Seron makes the first advances on toroidal space-time distortion [ST IV].
The 100th anniversary of Man on the Moon is celebrated at the museum built on the site of the first landing [SFC].
The last emperor rules the Klingon Empire. Afterwards the Empire will be ruled by a High Council (though perhaps incorrectly referred to as being ruled by an emperor by non-Klingons?) [TNG 249].
2070The Tau Ceti system is explored. Contact is made with the Kaferians, an insectoid race from Tau Ceti III (Kaferia), and trade relations are quickly established with Earth. Tau Ceti IV (Amber) will become the second Terran colony (with Sirius IX being the first, and not counting Centaurus IV) [STM, LOR, SFD].
Dax claims this was the last era s/he saw an old-style, non-antigrav wheelchair [DSN 426].
June [reference stardate 0/7006] The first fusion-driven Space Ark is launched, manned by people dissatis- fied with sociopolitical and ecological conditions within the Sol system [FASA, SFC].
T'Sara is born during this era [GN 13].
A bottle of Vulcan Puert (eventually to come into Quark's possession by 2370) is of this era's vintage, or so Quark will claim [DSN 440].
In the "Mirror" universe, mutual respect for each other's battle skills eventually creates order from chaos. A firm alliance between Earth and Vulcan is developed [TBoT #14].
2071The S.S. "Valiant" (NCC-S1104) galactic survey cruiser disappears near the edge of the galaxy [WNM, EOM, STM].
April [reference stardate 0/7104] An economic alliance is declared between Vulcan, Terra, and Alpha Centauri, and the first interstellar trade missions begin. Commercial space lanes with convenient transfer points are set up to encourage trade [FASA].
The 15-man MD1075 Multidock enters service [SFC].
2072 [reference stardate 0/7200]The Terrans have the last of their encounters with the Vegans [FASA].
February [reference stardate 0/7202] The Orion colonial governments make first contact with the Klingon Empire in the Phillo'tok system. They cleverly conceal the real value of their location in space and their mineral wealth, however, avoiding Klingon dom- ination by convincing the Empire that the Orions have more to offer as independent allies. After a minor show of force, the Council assigns a figurehead Klingon governor to the Orion Colonies; he never actually at- tempts to exercise control, and his position is mostly that of a trade liaison. The average Orion is totally unaware that the colonies are 'officially' a Klingon protectorate. They do recognize a rich new market when they see one, and so start to trade with the Klingons. Meanwhile, the controlling Orion trade families remain watchful to assure that the Empire does not become too interested in Rigel's wealth [FASA].
At the height of Earth's Third World War, colonists depart Earth aboard a warp driven sleeper ship. They will settle the water world Okeanos (Eris Eris V), and form a genetically engineered society credited to Khan Noonian Singh [TOS #66].
[Y 56] The First Lyran-Kzinti War ends [SFB].
June [reference stardate 0/7206] As a result of meetings with Vulcans and Alpha Centaurians, a detailed study is published on Terra strongly recommending a formal interstellar alliance between the three worlds [FASA].
October [reference stardate 0/7210] The tenth, and last, Space Ark is launched, complete with early transporter technology. Of all ten generation ships, only the passengers of this last ship will survive [FASA, Te/a]. Interstat code becomes outdated [Te/a].
2073, January [reference stardate 0/7301]Commerical spacelanes are established between Vulcan, Terra, and Alpha Centauri [FASA].
Yoshi journies to Vulcan as part of an exchange of scientists and agricultural experts. He will seek Vulcan citizenship and be granted a teaching fellowship at ShiKahr, never to return to Earth [GN 2].
20 August [reference stardate 0/7308.20]First contact is made with the Tellarites. Under the command of Admiral Abel Niwen of the "Liberty" class U.N.S.S. "Bonhomme Richard," a fleet of ten ships in Terra's United Nations Space Force on patrol in the Sol system meets a single, intruding Tellarite ship. After an unusual confrontation, the Tellarite commander accepts an offer of peaceful coexistence between the two races. Terran contact with the planet Tellar (61 Cygni V) will be by the U.S.S. "Earickson" and will throw the planet into panic, nearly destroying their economy. A worldwide broadcast shows a benevolent meeting between Captain Harland Anders and the Tellarite monarch Gartov. This incident is an early inspiration for the Prime Directive [FASA, SFC, TWF].
In the "Mirror" universe, the first contact with the Tellarites also occurs. They employ the "Three Billy Goats Gruff" tactic, offering the location of the Rigel Trading Planets (Rigel II and IV) in exchange for imperial immunity [TBoT #14].
The "Glenn" class space buses are retired from service [SFC].
December [reference stardate 0/7312] Emperor Karvan of the Klingon Empire orders the destruction of the Jaak, a semi-reptilian servitor race of telepaths, because he finds them too untrustworthy. A power struggle results, with Karvan caught in the middle. Finally, the Emperor is slain in single combat by General Kagga, a respect- ed military leader holding commissions in both the ground forces and the Imperial Navy. Kagga's prestige gains him the throne--for exactly one hour after which he is executed for treason. There will be five weak Emperors chosen and removed in the next 25 years, and many of the recently resumed colonization efforts again fall idle [FASA].
2074, 17 April [reference stardate 0/7404.17]The first successful test of warp radio between Pluto and Terra makes interstellar communication practical for the first time, allowing com- munication in weeks instead of years between near-by star systems. Transmissions are at 64 times the speed of light. Inauguration ceremonies are held at the Farpluto Transmitting Platform (Bela Abruzzi, United Nations Representative), Outer Eridani Transmitting Platform (T'Pau, Vulcan Academy of Sciences Representative), and the Centauri Transmitting Platform (Zormer Ganderane, Alpha Centauri Representative) [FASA, SFC].
2075Synthococcus Novae, a bacillus strain, is created by accident on Tiburon (Omega Fornacis III) [MRM, WEd].
The first small interstellar scouts, the "Franklin" class enter service. Only a crew of four is required on these small warp driven ships [SFC].
The "Columbus" class explorers are phased-out as warp-driven ships enter service [SFC].
The U.S.S. "Lynx" (NCC-4600) timeship, on her seventh mission, explores the legends of a black hole in the Gamma Hydra sector [LTP].
29 November [reference stardate 0/7511.29]First contact with the Andorians nearly ends in disaster when an Andorian starship fires on a Terran exploratory vessel. Terra prepares for war, but cooler heads on Vulcan convince Terran leaders to negotiate with the grow- ing Andorian Empire [FASA].
2076Earth's first unmanned, computer guided, interplanetary ships (cargo carriers) begin transporting raw materials and other freight, propelled by advanced fusion drives [SFC].
October [reference stardate 0/7610] The Klingons withdraw their figurehead governor from the Orion worlds, beginning a period of benign neglect. Conflict has heated up between the Romulans and Klingons along their common border (though no war is actually declared), leaving the Empire no time for an area it perceives as only marginally useful. Klingon trading vessels become rare in Orion space, with the Orions using their own vessels to conduct most of the trade in war materials with the Klingons. The Orions claimed that this would free Klingon vessels from war efforts. Their real reason for suggesting the policy is to rid their space of the Klingon presence in order to build their own military more effectively without tipping the Empire to their actual strength [FASA].
2077, March [reference stardate 0/7703]The First Alpha Centauri Conference preserves interstellar peace when Vulcan diplomats convince Andor that it has nothing to gain and everything to lose by fighting Terra and her allies. Andor joins the informal alliance [FASA].
In the "Mirror" universe, the Alpha Centauri Conference convenes as Vulcan, Andor, Tellar, and Earth discuss the best strategy for invading the Rigel system [TBoT #14].
"Parr" class interplanetary tugs end their service lives [SFC].
2078, January [reference stardate 0/7801]The United Nations Space Forces "Messier" class cruiser becomes opera- tional. This class is the first to be equipped with the newly developed particle beam cannon. Refitted for combat duty in the Romulan War, the "Messier" class will see extensive action in that conflict. A total of 875 are built. This becomes the last entirely Earth built major ship series. These 93-man ships are the first to have integrated Earth-alien crews, with advanced first generation warp drive engines (20:1 matter/antimatter mix), four forward lasers, two particle beam cannons, and 55 fusion torpedoes. This is the first class equipped with warp communication capabilities. The U.N.S.S. "Pollux" will be the most famous ship of this class, seeing exten- sive action during the Romulan War. At the formation of the U.F.P. Star Fleet Command will order additional ships of this class until Federation- designed ships come on line [FASA, SFC].
May [reference stardate 0/3805] Harmon Axelrod, first Secretary General and President of the Federation Council, is born [FASA, SFC].
"Wayne" class scouts are decommissioned [SFC].
2079United Earth is temporarily un-unified as the Post-Atomic Horror reaches its peak on Earth [TNG 101].
The "Wanderer," the first L5 Earth structure, departs Sol system. Essentially a sublight generation ship with fusion drive, contact will be lost and the vessel assumed to be destroyed [ON 15].
27 July [reference stardate 0/7907.27]Terran ships make contact with the Orion Colonies in the Rigel system after learning about their existence from Tellarite traders. The U.F.P.'s electronics and space metals are discovered to be more advanced than many others. Captain Lorenzo Malfatti of the U.N.S.S. "Marco Polo" ("Merchant" class) conducts the first trading on the Rigel Trading Planet [FASA].
In the "Mirror" universe, the invasion of the Rigel Trading Planets occurs. It is met with strong resistance, resulting in the slaughter of every Rigellian on the two planets. The accumulated radiation on the "conquered" worlds makes life impossible there for the next two centuries [TBoT #14].
The WP174 Work Pod enters service, having fusion-warp propulsion and able to carry up to 6 people [SFC].
The "Magellan" class spaceliners end their service lives [SFC].
2080The "Cosmos" series of stellar survey ships begin research into nearby stars [SFC].
The U.N.S.S. "Fisher" ("Companion" class escort) is decommissioned from regular service, along with her sister ships, but is renovated and serves as the Official Interplanetary Carrier for the Secretary General of the United Nations [SFC].
2081In the "Mirror" universe, the "Napoleon" series of galactic probes are launched from Earth [TBoT #14].
October [reference stardate 0/8110] The first joint scientific project between Terra, Alpha Centauri, and Vulcan shows tangible benefits when the first of a new series of "Milky Way" research probes are launched from these three worlds [FASA].
2082, April [reference stardate 0/8204]A series of meetings takes place on Vulcan, attended by delegates of the five major spacefaring governments. This attempt to establish a single, unifying government fails to receive popular support because its primary goals and policies are not adequately defined. Diplomats agree to work on defining the roles and responsibilities of the new government [FASA].
The "Cosmos" class 100-man star survey ships enter service [SFC].
June [reference stardate 0/8206] The last of the "Milky Way" research probes are launched [FASA].
Colonel Steven Richey dies on Theta VIII in the alien "Hotel Royale" simulacrum, the last of the S.S. "Charybdis" [TNG 138].
2083Epsilon Rays are first detected when the baffle plate is torn off an old "Woden" class freighter during a passage through a comet's radioactive tail [MRM].
The first Earth-alien starship crews reflects Terra's increasing interaction with alien cultures, as demonstrated by the U.N.S.S. "Pollux's" Human Captain Shu Tse Sum and Vulcan communications officer, Supak [SFC].
The "Keller" class ambulance vessels are decommissioned [SFC].
2084The Ceres expedition is lost. They are later believed to have founded the Ten Tribes of Capella IV [STM, ST 3].
"Edison" class 58-man interstellar research ships begin gathering new information on antimatter in the interstellar void [SFC].
2085, August [reference stardate 0/8508]An unknown disease spreads through Terra's 200-man research base on Pluto, leaving no survivors. The disease is later linked to a contaminated souvenir brought in by a careless Orion trader. This is the first unpleas- ant incident between Terrans and Orions, and helps to set the tone for future relations [SFC, FASA, TWF].
The "Assist" class space tower, 20-man, warp driven vessels enter service [SFC].
2086A feud starts between the Lornak and Tralesta clans on Acamar III [TNG 157].
2087Beginnings of the United Federation of Planets. The first Babel Inter- planetary Conference is held. Tatiana Bilash is one of the elder statepersons present [GN 2, FASA, SFC].
The stardate dating system is established [GN 2, SFC, FASA].
2089Zefram Cochrane takes his last interstellar voyage [Mt, STM].
In the "Mirror" universe, Zefram Cochrane, plagued by guilt for placing faster-than-light travel in Joachim's hands, flees into deep space [TBoT #14].
Earth vessels encounter the Vegan Tyranny. The decisive actions of the S.S. "Cochrane" and S.S. "Krushchev" cruisers prevent a major interstellar war [EOM, ST 2].
2090The "Monticello" class cargo carriers are decommissioned [SFC].
2092The U.E.S. "Hernan de Soto" charts the water world Okeanos (Eris V) while making a side-trip to do a close-range study of a pulsar 25 light years distant, during the First General Survey. The primary is officially named Joan-Marie's Star, after the ship's navigator [TOS #66].
2093The "Liberty" class is decommissioned [SFC].
2095Sarpk becomes famous on Vulcan for his Vulcan lyrettes [TM].
The Earth colony ship makes planetfall on Okeanos (Eris V) [TOS #66].
The "Verne" class cruisers and "Amity" shuttles are decommissioned [SFC].
The "Franklin" class interstellar scouts are decommissioned [SFC].
2097The groundwork for the United Federation of Planets is layed out in San Francisco on Earth. The Second History alternate timeline begins when Romulan androids from 2264 A.D. assassinate Dr. Palmer and his two associates. As a result, the prospace exploration faction loses much of its status. After several years Earth begins to exhaust its natural resources and its nations begin fighting among themselves until the environment is almost totally destroyed [TOS #24].
On Vemla, the first androids are constructed, designed as military hardware [TNG #20].
2098MD1075 series multidocks end their service lives as do the WP174 work pods [SFC].
2100The Synthococcus immunization is developed by John Pearce [MRM]. On Earth, the Centenary Conference looks at what the 22nd century will bring. Authorities trace the evolution of propulsion, communications, and electronics and the development of political and economic alliances. Other speakers look to the future with forecasts ranging from the pro- phetic to the short-sighted [SFC, TWF].
This is the era of the European Hegemony: a loose political alliance on Earth and the beginnings of a world government [TNG 144].
2101The Earth-Vulcan cultural exchange begins. Many new treatments and techniques in the field of medical science result [MRM].
2102The S.S. "Hokule'a" is launched on a deep space exploration mission to the Ficus sector, a DY-500-C ship commanded by Melinda Snodgrass [TNG 144].
2105The "Lafayette" starliner colonizes New Paris [EOM].
The Redjac entity kills eight women in the Martian Colonies [WF].
'The Starship's Medicine Chest and First Aid in Space' is published for the first time [MRM].
"Long" class barges are decommissioned [SFC].
The V.K. "Yuri Gagarin" DY-732 ship, commanded by Winrich Kolbe, is launched on a colonization mission to the Ficus sector [TNG 144].
2106The Susuru colonize Okeanos (Eris V) not knowing of the Human colony [TOS #66].
Abraham Dannon is born [FASA].
2107Naja is born on Dalzell [ON 16]. The unmanned interplanetary cargo carriers introduced in 2076 end their service [SFC].
2108War breaks out between the Susuru and the Human colonists on the water world Okeanos (Eris V) [TOS #66].
2110Around this time, Halaylah's artist's colony on Atropos has fallen. The Devil's Heart will remain buried within her tomb until 2368 [GN 13].
2112Zefram Cochrane is reported missing [Mt, STM].
The service life of "Assist" class space towers comes to an end [SFC]. Following the disappearance of Zefram Cochrane, the planet Cochrane I (Zeta Riguli VII) is settled by Humans and Alpha Centaurians. Rich in dilithium and radioactives, Cochrane I will quickly become a thriving ind- ustrial planet, hosting the central administrative center for the U.F.P.'s Department of Colonization and numerous subsidiary agencies and organizat- ions [FASA].
2113The Cicada star system (sector 4423) is briefly explored. Over the next 150 years, a ship will disappear in this region exactly every 27.346 years [LS/a, Log 2].
2114A cure is found for hyperthyroidism [TOS #56].
2115The "Marco Polo" encounters the Galactic Maelstrom, henceforth known as 'Polo's Bolos': twin black holes in motion [ON 15].
2119Peter Lauritson commands the S.S. "Tomobiki" RT-2203 vessel on a deep space exploration mission of the Ficus sector [TNG 144].
2120The S.S. "Seattle" commanded by Wendy Neuss (NAR 18834) is launched on an A.D.R. looping mission to the Ficus sector [TNG 144].
The H.M.S. "Lord Nelson," DY-500-B ship, commanded by Young Jae Kim is launched on a deep space exploration mission to the Ficus sector [TNG 144].
The "Cosmos" class star survey ships are decommissioned [SFC].
2123, 27 NovemberCaptain Walter Granger, commanding the S.S. "Mariposa" (NAR 7678, a modified DY-500 vessel with Yoyodyne pulse fusion drive) departs Sol system. The vessel will colonize the Ficus sector's Mariposa and Bringloid V worlds [TNG 144].
2124The first Federation congress meets. The Vulcan delegation introduces a referendum on Federation-wide Warrantorship [TOS #25].
2125The Federation Era begins. Over a hundred people, accompanied by staffs totaling more than a thousand assistants, begin to draft the Articles of Federation of the U.F.P. on Babel (Wolf 424) [MRM, TOS#6].
Vulcan Fleet Commander Savaj, commanding the "V'Kreeth," opens up a whole quadrant of space and single-handedly attempts to keep Vulcan from joining in forming the United Federation of Planets [TOS #5].
2127, 08 May (stardate 0965)The Articles of Federation are signed on Babel. The United Federation of Planets is formed, consisting of the United Nations of Earth (SolIII), the Planetary Confederation of 40 Eridani A (Vulcan), the United Planets of 61 Cygni (Tellar), the Star Empire of Epsilon Indii (Andor), and the Alpha Centauri Concordium of Planets (Centaurus VII). The U.F.P. sphere of influence is a 90 parsec diameter sphere centered on Sol, approximately 380,000 cubic parsecs [STM, EOM, TM, LOR, SFD].
Under the Articles of Federation, expenditure is granted for the construct- ion of an initial total of fourteen heavy cruiser starships and seventeen starbases. Star Fleet becomes the organizational name for UESPA, a milit- ary chain of command roughly based on that used by NATO in the 20th Century and the military forces of all five U.F.P. members (and those of subsequent member systems) are consolidated under it [TM, EOM].
06 June [reference stardate 0/8706.06]The goals of the U.F.P. include ensuring interstellar security and improv- ing economic trade, scientific research, and galactic exploration. In conjunction with these objectives, Star Fleet Command is to be created within the next three years, providing a unified military force for explor- ation and common defense. The Orion Colonies offer to join the U.F.P., provided that they are paid ten trillion credits "in compensation." Their request is rejected, and so they remain outside the Federation. The Orions also maintain the secret of the existence of the Klingon Empire. The Klingons are just one of many cultures with whom the Orions trade, and so they continue to go unnoticed by the newborn Federation. Harmon Axelrod is the first president of the U.F.P. Council [SFC, FASA].
In the "Mirror" universe, the first Babel Conference establishes the birth of the empire. Original "members" of the empire include: Alpha Centauri, Vulcan, Tellar, Andor, and Earth [TBoT #14].
A ship disappears in the Cicada/Taurean region [LS/a].
The Worlds Court bans the ownership of synthetic consciousnesses [TOS #42].
Milton Kornheiser starts designing interstellar spacecraft [SFC].
2129Alpha (Procyon A) III (Terra 4) becomes the 6th U.F.P. member--the first colony to be launched after the advent of warp drive, a pacifist culture settled by Buddist Chinese [STM, LOR].
2130Maxwell Grandisson III is born [TOS #16].
Bonner the Stochastic is born [ST 2].
Human and Alpha Centaurian colonists settle the planet Hellios (Sigma Wyrenex VI) [FASA].
07 NovemberThe U.S.S. "Durance" (FR-250) prototype cargo/tug vessel is launched [CTP].
24 DecemberThe U.S.S. "Heron Bay" (FR-251) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
2131, 03 FebruaryThe U.S.S. "Remagen" (FR-252) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
10 FebruaryThe U.S.S. "Durance" (FR-250) cargo/tug is commissioned. The class will number 15 ships (FR-250-FR-264). These warp 2 capacity vessels, with 3 (Keindoffer Klatssen Industries) laser turrets, a ship's complement of 40, and the most advanced turbo elevator system of its time, will serve for 33 years [CTP].
27 FebruaryThe U.S.S. "Heron Bay" (FR-251) "Durance" class cargo/tug is commissioned [CTP].
25 MarchThe U.S.S. "Avior" (FR-253) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
17 AprilThe U.S.S. "Remagen" (FR-252) "Durance" class cargo/tug is commissioned [CTP].
09 MayThe U.S.S. "Manassa" (FR-254) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
01 JuneThe U.S.S. "Avior" (FR-253) "Durance" class cargo/tug is commissioned [CTP].
27 JulyThe U.S.S. "Manassa" (FR-254) "Durance" class cargo/tug is commissioned [CTP].
02 OctoberThe U.S.S. "Gridley" (FR-255) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
21 NovemberThe U.S.S. "Cypress" (FR-256) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
25 NovemberThe U.S.S. "Aberdeen" (FR-257) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
28 NovemberThe U.S.S. "Rio Verde" (FR-258) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
06 DecemberThe U.S.S. "Gridley" (FR-255) "Durance" class cargo/tug is commissioned [CTP].
2132, 01 JanuaryThe U.S.S. "Cay'Andera" (FR-259) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
30 JanuaryThe U.S.S. "Cypress" (FR-256), U.S.S. "Aberdeen" (FR-257), and U.S.S. "Rio Verde" (FR-258) "Durance" class cargo/tugs are commissioned [CTP].
01 MarchThe U.S.S. "Cay'Andera" (FR-259) "Durance" class cargo/tug is commissioned [CTP].
19 MarchThe U.S.S. "Manheim" (FR-260) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
20 MayThe U.S.S. "Manheim" (FR-260) "Durance" class cargo/tug is commissioned [CTP].
27 JuneThe U.S.S. "Halsey" (FR-261) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
Vega IX becomes the 7th U.F.P. member [STM, LOR].
28 AugustThe U.S.S. "Halsey" (FR-261) "Durance" class cargo/tug is commissioned [CTP].
05 SeptemberThe U.S.S. "Sierra Vista" (FR-262) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
26 OctoberThe U.S.S. "Chandeleur" (FR-263) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
05 NovemberThe U.S.S. "Sierra Vista" (FR-262) "Durance" class cargo/tug is commis- sioned [CTP].
25 DecemberThe U.S.S. "Grevenmacher" (FR-264) "Durance" class cargo/tug is launched [CTP].
26 DecemberThe U.S.S. "Chandeleur" (FR-263) "Durance" class cargo/tug is commissioned [CTP].
2133, 20 FebruaryThe U.S.S. "Grevenmacher" (FR-264) "Durance" class cargo/tug is com- missioned [CTP].
2134The U.S.S. "Carrizal" flyby of the Romulan home worlds (128 Trianguli) results in the Rihannsu preparing for a war against the U.F.P. [TOS #35].
A semi-military Terran Space Academy is opened on Vulcan [EOM].
2135The H.M.S. "New Zealand," a DY-732 (N) ship commanded by Bob Lederman, embarks on a diplomatic mission to Alderaan in the Ficus sector [TNG 144].
2137The U.S.S. "Balboa" enters the Romulan system on a peace mission. A squadron of fifty Rihannsu ships destroy the "Balboa" with massed particle beams. The Romulans then use high-powered lasers to decompress the crew compartments of the U.S.S. "Stone Mountain," and after studying the ship, gain warp drive technology. The First Federation-Romulan War begins [TOS #35, SFB].
The U.S.S. "Chandeleur" (FR-263) "Durance" class cargo/tug disappears (cause unknown) [CTP].
Jennifer Anne MacIntyre marries George William Jeffries. Their grandson, Frederick William Jeffries, will design the Jeffries tube [TOS #52].
The S.S. "Buckaroo Banzai," a BBI-993 spaceship commanded by John Whorfin, is launched on a mission to Planet 10 (Dim 8) in the Ficus sector [TNG 144].
2139, August [reference stardate 0/8708]In the first example of Federation military cooperation, the Alpha Centauran "Djartanna" class destroyer enters service in the Terran United Nations Space Force. Over the next three decades, a total of 316 are constructed for the U.N.S.F. and Star Fleet Command [FASA].
A nostalgic replica of a 19th Century pilot schooner vessel is built. By 2264 it will be renamed the "Edith Keeler" by Captain Kirk [TOS #31].
2140 [reference stardate 0/88]A U.F.P. census indicates Earth has a population of ten billion, with over eight million Terrans residing in space [SFC].
April [reference stardate 0/8804] Plans are made for a Federation-wide news-gathering and reporting agency. As a result, the Solarian News Agency merges with other planetary services, creating the United Federation of Planets Infonet [FASA]. Chan is born [GN 7].
2141 [reference stardate 0/89]Space buoys are deployed to improve navigation and security within Federation boundaries [SFC].
14 September [reference stardate 0/8909.14]Terran and Alpha Centauran warships are operating on a joint trading mission and war games maneuver when tragedy strikes. A misunderstanding of navigational instructions is compounded by a weapon fire-control systems failure when the U.S.S. "Scythe," a "Verne" class ship commanded by Captain Henri Fourrier, is accidentally blind-sided. Two Terran destroyers, the U.S.S. "Hammer" and U.S.S. "Enmity" are annihilated, killing 232 crewmen. This accident vividly points out the need for a single command structure and a central training facility for starship crews of all Federation members: a Star Fleet Academy [FASA, SFC].
10 October [reference stardate 0/8910.10]Star Fleet Command replaces the spacegoing forces of all member planets, and all ships are now redesignated as "United Space Ships" [FASA].
Harding Richardson becomes a physician [SFC].
2142 [reference stardate 0/90]The U.F.P. Patents Bureau is established to provide scientists, engineers, and inventors of all member planets galactic protection for their work [SFC].
June [reference stardate 0/9006] Continued advances are made in communications theory and technology. Research leads to a level of near-perfect efficiency. From this point on, messages sent via warp radio travel at the unbelievable speed of Warp 15, or 3375 times the speed of light. Over the next two years, all starships have their communications equipment modified accordingly [FASA].
2143, 19 September [reference stardate 0/9109.19]Star Fleet Academy is founded on Alpha Centauri, and its first class of 300 students represents eight different Humanoid races. Stavros Niarchos is the Academy Commandant [FASA, SFC].
In the "Mirror" universe, the Imperial Academy opens with a first class of 300 students [TBoT #14].
The bone-setting laser is perfected [SFC].
2144 [reference stardate 0/92]The "Vanguard" class transports enter service. This is the largest com- mercial/industrial ship of the 21st Century and will serve as the primary multipurpose starship in the early years of the U.F.P. Its side loading bays and adaptable cargo interior makes for ready accommodation of differ- ent payloads, from small craft to raw ore to nearly 1,000 passengers (standard crew complement: 94). Later models will be uprated to keep pace with advances in warp technology. The "Vanguard" class has a warp capacity of 2.75 when empty and warp 2 when loaded, with advanced first generation warp drive engines [SFC].
03 November [reference stardate 0/9211.03]The U.S.S. "Atlas", a Federation cargo ship operating near the frontier of Federation space, is attacked and destroyed, though this is not known until the recovery of its marker/recorder buoy containing a complete transcript of the events preceding the "Atlas'" destruction. The "Muleskinner," an ore carrier, is spacejacked by pirates. The "Atlas" was destroyed by a Romulan patrol craft for wandering into Romulan territory. At first the Romulans suspect that U.F.P. incursions into their space may be a Klingon deception. Later, the Imperial Council, remembering the 'Klingon lesson', decides not to risk negotiation with the U.F.P., in the hope that destruc- tion of all intruders will keep the U.F.P from expanding into Romulan Space [FASA, SFC].
In the "Mirror" universe, the first contact with the Romulans occurs when an ore carrier (the I.S.S. "Muleskinner") attempts to ram a passing scout ship. (An offshoot of the Vulcans, the Romulans have developed an attitude of neutrality but are fierce fighters if backed into a corner, as the crew of the "Muleskinner" learns all too well.) The Vulcans warn the empire that the Romulans are best left alone. The emperor wisely agrees [TBoT #14].
17 November [reference stardate 0/9211.17]After failing to arrive as scheduled at the Sector 5D Agricultural Colony, the U.S.S "Atlas" is listed as missing [FASA].
[reference stardate 0/92] As a result of these crimes, appropriations earmarked for Star Fleet increase greatly [SFC].
2145, 21 February [reference stardate 0/9302.21]A Star Fleet scout ship recovers the marker/recorder buoy from the lost cargo vessel U.S.S. "Atlas". Tapes from the buoy reveal that the transport was not lost in space, but was fired upon by enemy aliens of unknown origin. Star Fleet Command later learns that this was the first act of violence committed by the Romulans against the Federation [FASA].
The U.S.S. "Durance" (FR-250) cargo/tug class ship and her sister ship the U.S.S. "Gridley" (FR-255) are modified to be escort cruisers [CTP].
October [reference stardate 0/9310] Star Fleet Command's "Horizon" class cruiser becomes operational. This is the first class of warship to be jointly designed and constructed by engineers from several member systems of the new U.F.P. It is also the first class to be equipped with the new quasi-nuclear photon-neutron tor- pedoes. An excellent design, it will serve with Star Fleet's frontline units for almost five decades. More than 1,300 are built. Each ship has a complement of 224, warp 3.25 capacity (via 2nd generation warp drive and 20:1 matter to antimatter fuel) and an ordnance consisting of 4-8 forward lasers, 2-6 particle beam cannons, and 50-250 torpedoes (the latter number being the upgrade during her service in the Romulan War) [FASA, SFC].
In the "Mirror" universe, the empire launches the "Gladiator" class vessels, 2nd generation warp drive ships [TBoT #14].
18 October [reference stardate 0/9310.18]The U.S.S. "Amaretto", operating within Federation-patrolled territory, is attacked by two starships of unknown configuration. The vessels are similar to those described by the commander of the U.S.S. "Atlas". The freighter is severely damaged, but the attackers break off when a Feder- ation four-ship destroyer squadron appears. The Star Fleet Command flag- ship attempts to establish communications for purposes of identification and explanation. The alien vessel fails to understand or ignores all efforts to communicate, and successfully evades pursuit [FASA].
2146 [reference stardate 0/94]The Delta VII outpost is destroyed by space pirates. Years later, it is discovered this was another Romulan criminal act [SFC, FASA].
November [reference stardate 0/9411] A total of 32 unarmed warp-driven message probes are launched toward areas of uncharted space from starships and planets near Delta VII. Each probe contains complete symbolic instructions and messages in every known language. The messages request the establishment of diplomatic relations and the resolution of any existing dispute via peaceful means. No probe is ever regained, and all are assumed to be lost or destroyed by the pirates [FASA].
The S.S "Urusei Yatsura" DY-430 spaceship, commanded by Dave Glick, embarks on a nebula survey project into the Ficus sector [TNG 144].
2147The Theta VII mining and subterranean farming colony is established [STM].
08 July [reference stardate 0/9507.08]Star Fleet Engineering Command's first major construction project culmin- ates in the activation of Starbase 1. This is the first major artificial construction, repair, and service facility built for Star Fleet Command. Its first commander is Commodore Felix Pjindik after it ends its year-long tow to Sector 3A, with Chief Engineer Hobbes [FASA, SFC].
In the "Mirror" universe, Outpost One is constructed as the first imperial fortress in space [TBoT #14].
Edward Abramson, brilliant physicist and developer of transtater physics is supposedly born--in actuality, he is Flint the Immortal [SFC, RM].
30 November [reference stardate 0/9511.30]The Federation Council passes a special directive to Star Fleet Command. In addition to new, massive appropriations for fleet construction, the dir- ective orders several cruiser formations redeployed to strengthen defenses in the area where the U.S.S. "Atlas" was lost. A special scout squadron under the jurisdiction of Star Fleet Intelligence Command is dispatched to obtain any possible information on the pirates, and, if possible, to make diplomatic contact. The squadron consists of twelve warp-driven patrol craft, each manned by a crew of 15 volunteers. None of the craft are ever seen or heard from again [FASA].
2148 [reference stardate 0/96]The U.S.F. "Arrow" class star fighter enters service in the Advance Scout Fleet of Starbase defense capability. They will be joined by "Galliant" 1-2 man star fighters, with advanced first generation warp drive [SFC].
The U.S.S. "Remagen" (FR-252) and U.S.S. "Manassa" (FR-254) cargo/tug ves- sels of the "Durance" class collide. The "Remagen" sustains major damage and is subsequently scrapped. The "Manassa" sustains minor damage and is modified to be an escort cruiser [CTP].
Naw-Rocki is born [TOS #33].
2149Deneb (Alpha Cygni) becomes the 8th U.F.P. member [STM].
Berlinghoff Rasmussen plays his first high-stakes poker game on Titanias III, just prior to the plague that will wipe out half the population, sit- ting across from a Klingon claiming to be from the House of Duras [DSN #4].
Sometime during this century, Rasmussen will steal a time travel capsule from a 26th Century researcher. He will use it to travel to the "Enterprise" in 2368 and attempt to steal items to profit from during his return to this century, but will be apprehended. The capsule will return to this era unmanned as programmed [TNG 209].
The first spacefaring hospital ships go on call in U.F.P. charter member star systems. Along with the "Horizon" class, these interstellar hospital ships ("Hopkins" class) are among the first created by and for the newly- incorporated U.F.P. Each member planet having contributed its particular design needs, so that the hospital ships could address the medical problems of all the life-forms known. Later, these ships will play an integral part in the Federation's Medical Assistance Program and be dispatched to sectors or systems experiencing severe medical emergencies [SFC].
August [reference stardate 0/9708] Starbase 3 is completed and assumes operational status. This base is used as the primary command headquarters for Star Fleet Operations during the Romulan War. Its great distance from the front makes command, control, and communications protocols difficult to execute efficiently. For this reason many Star Fleet squadron and group commanders are able to exert enormous personal authority, responsibility, and initiative while fighting this war [FASA].
[Y 33] The Romulan Warbird enters service [SFB].
2150A World Government is in existence on Earth, or possibly formed [TNG 260].
Navigational buoys are placed at each sector corner and along spacelanes for commercial and private interstellar craft [LOR].
The U.S.S. "Heron Bay" (FR-251) and the U.S.S. "Manheim" (FR-260) "Durance" class cargo/tugs are modified to be light destroyers. The U.S.S. "Rio Verde" (FR-258) is modified to be a science/survey vessel [CTP].
The Eristaffe-Zynn Defense and Space Systems Division is established on Sebaldhesta Sennis [SsD].
With the androids' unification of the planet Vemla, war is abolished--until the androids revolt in 2347 [TNG #20].
Tetsuo Inomata, Hikaru Sulu's great-grandfather, is born [TOS #47].
Increased Star Fleet construction programs brings forth the "Manta" class "Space Tank." This small yet powerful vessel has a tremendous offensive capability. They are joined by the "Clark" class 10-man space tanks [SFC].
Small-scale student exchange programs begin among several U.F.P. members [SFC].
[Y 34] The Gorn sublight battleship enters service [SFB].
2151, 01 January [reference stardate 0/9901.1]The Bank of Andor is founded in Daldorran, Andor--the main repository for U.F.P. hard currency holdings [FASA].
04 May [reference stardate 0/9905.04]In the most tragic incident of piracy to date, the commercial passenger liner S.S. "Diana" is systematically attacked. Almost 600 passengers and crew are killed and the cargo apparently stolen. The U.S.S. "Intrepid" cruiser of the "Messier" class, commanded by Captain Henry McKenna, re- trieves the remains of the "Diana." Within weeks, the Diana Lives! Found- ation is established so that people do not forget the tragedy of that ship's loss [FASA, SFC]. Emanuel Tagore is born [TOS #16].
2152, January [reference stardate 1/5201]The Arcturus Test Range begins operations, serving as Star Fleet's newest propulsion and weaponry test facility [SFC, FASA].
[reference stardate 1/0000] At a major Earth Spaceflight Conference on Starbase 5, Dr. Milton Kornheiser speaks out on the future of interstellar vessels, stating that warp factor 4 is the limit for warp drive engines even if the matter/anti- matter reaction becomes 100% efficient [SFC].
January [reference stardate 1/0001] Several U.F.P. cultural exchange programs, including the Student Exchange Program and the Galactic Cultural Exchange, are postponed indefinitely. The reasons include a decreasing interest in the projects and the fear of pirates attacking shipping [FASA, SFC].
March [reference stardate 1/0003] The Ascendance of Keth epetai-Rivaki to the Klingon Imperial Throne begins a new era of Klingon expansionism and prosperity. Known as "the Centenar- ian," Keth will live to be just over 100 standard years old, and have the longest known reign of any Klingon Emperor to date [FASA].
Marcos XII becomes the 9th U.F.P. member [STM].
[Y 36] The first Gorn-Romulan War begins [SFB].
21 November [reference stardate 1/0011.21]Star Fleet's 155th Combat Squadron, currently on recreational leave, is caught in a surprise attack at the site of the unfinished Outer Sector Defense Outpost 4. A major sensor failure at the outpost permits a squad- ron of pirate cruisers to sneak up and catch the squadron unprepared for combat. Though the pirates left the incomplete base untouched, they de- stroyed eleven of the squadron's twelve starships. Enemy losses are believed to be very light [FASA].
2153, 01 January [reference stardate 1/0101.01]New Years Day celebrations throughout colonized space are interrupted with the news of the destruction at Outer Sector Defense Outpost 4. The U.S.S. "Carronade", a "Cavalry" Class destroyer, survives to report about the sneak attack. The senior officers of the destroyer describe enemy vessels painted as giant, winged creatures that performed suicide runs with fusion-explosive missiles. Intercepted subspace radio transmissions fron this battle are translated, finally giving the enemy a name--the Romulans. The U.F.P. also obtains its first accurate bearing on Romulan-held space [FASA].
Trivium (Element 127) is discovered in the Denevan asteroid belt [MRM].
The Centauri Firing Range opens for use by all members of the U.F.P. [SFC].
2154A ship disappears in the Cicada/Taurean region [LS/a]
U.F.P. tension continues to grow as reports from outlying sectors suggest these space pirates may be an organized, well prepared force, not a loosely knit band of renegades [SFC]..
The "Mercury" class scout enters service, with a ship's complement of 62 and second generation warp drive propulsion [SFC].
[Y 38] The Lyran-Klingon War begins; no details are known [SFB].
Military salutes go out of style [GN 11].
2155, 02 February [reference stardate 1/0302.2]Starwide Merchants, Inc. is founded in Grinitaine, Alpha Centauri to fin- ance and equip colonial expeditions [FASA].
[Y 39] The Gorns lose the first Gorn-Romulan War at Gorn-Shima [SFB].
Kethas epetai-Khemara is born in the Klingon Empire [TOS #16].
02 November [reference stardate 1/0311.02]Outer Sector Defense Outpost 1 (Starbase 1), located in the Delta II system, is destroyed by a squadron of seven Romulan cruisers. Commodore Tonsum Han of the U.S.S. "Garibaldi" ("Horizon" class), commanding the 159th Combat Squadron, has his entire force out on maneuvers during the time of attack. He is subsequently court-martialed and discharged for dereliction of duty [FASA, SFC].
In the "Mirror" universe, a Romulan outpost is destroyed by the I.S.S. "Constitution," and a Romulan military mobilization begins [TBoT #14].
06 December [reference stardate 1/0312.06]Star Fleet Command institutes a Mobilization Alert to bring all bases and construction facilities to combat readiness. As part of the Mobilization Alert, a Zone of Transport Escort is established in the disputed areas. Star Fleet assigns military escorts to all priority transports [FASA].
2156 [reference stardate 1/04]Advanced laser weaponry, in development for eight years, is approved for use on all "Horizon" class cruisers. Designed by Captain Theodore Weller of the "Cavalry" class starship U.S.S. "Poisson" at the Centauri Firing Range, the lasers can be warp-accelerated at their target having a spread departure of 2.3x10^-9 [SFC].
The U.S.S. "Halsey" (FR-261) "Durance" class cargo/tug is used as an experimental test ship [CTP].
[Y 40] The Lyrans attack what they believe is a Klingon mining colony. The outpost is, instead, from the Hydrans, and not previously known to the Lyrans. Thus begins the first Lyran-Hydran War [SFB].
May [reference stardate 1/0405] Star Fleet Command and several leading universities co-publish a report on the Romulan race. This study examines all available information on the Romulans and describes their threat to the Federation [FASA].
(8650 Vulcan Years) The Vulcan Outreach period begins [MRM].
The Redjac entity kills two women in Heliopolis on Alpha Proxima (Eridani) II [WF].
2157, January [reference stardate 1/0501]After several months of careful analysis and discussion, ranking Star Fleet officers at Starbase 3 report their decision. All subsectors within Sectors 5, 7, and 10 go to Code 1 War-Alert status to combat the Romulans' irregular hit-and-run tactics [FASA].
Izar (Epsilon Bootis III) becomes the 10th U.F.P. member [STM].
The first "Merchantman" Class J cargo ships are constructed. 1,827 of these warp 1.3, 12-man vessels will be built by 2175 and many will remain in service well into the late 23rd Century [MCP].
Alonzo Richter is born [GN 7].
"Doppler" class, 50-man, scouts with second generation warp drive enter service [SFC].
22 July [reference stardate 1/0507.22]Two Romulan gunboats are surrounded and crippled in the Sexton system by units from Star Fleet's 123rd Combat Squadron. The Romulan ships self-destruct while several Federation ships maneuver close for boarding. Four U.F.P. destroyers are lost with all hands. Star Fleet issues standing orders prohibiting its vessels from closing with even a badly damaged Romulan vessel [FASA].
November [reference stardate 1/0511] Star Fleet Command's "Marshall" class destroyer becomes operational and is rushed into immediate full-scale production. Equipped with many of the most recent technological advances, this warship is the mainstay of the Federation's combat fleet during the latter part of the Romulan War. The "Marshall" remains in active service for 60 years, longer than any other major warship class before or since. A total of 2,900 ships are built. These destroyers have warp 3.8 capacity, are the first ships with warp- generated defensive shielding, carry a crew of 157, and have an impressive ordanance consisting of: 14 forward lasers, 8 rear lasers, 8 forward part- icle beam cannons, 2 rear particle beam cannons, and 400 photon torpedoes [FASA]. Sectors 1-4 and 7-10 go to Code 1 Alert Status as the Romulan Empire continues its "hit and run" tactics [FASA].
07 December [reference stardate 1/0522.07]Two Romulan vessels are crippled by a Star Fleet strike force. The Romulan commanders wait until several ships maneuver close for grappling and boar- ding, then self-destruct taking the U.F.P. ships with them as they explode. Standard orders are issued prohibiting U.F.P. vessels from closing with even a badly-damaged Romulan vessel [FASA].
09 December [reference stardate 1/0512.09]Discussions are held at the highest echelons of the Federation and Star Fleet Command. As a result, President of the Federation Council Cristofur Thorpe issues a sealed, standing order by subspace radio to all individuals possessing the rank of Admiral, Council Secretary, or Senior Ambassador. If formal contact is made with the official Romulan government, the Feder- ation will demand that all hostilities cease immediately, or a state of war will be declared. Any military or governmental official receiving this order has the full authority of the U.F.P. to authorize such a declaration [FASA].
2158 [Y 42]The Lyran-Klingon War ends when several Lyran clans abandon the war to protect their homes from the Hydrans. The Lyrans are forced to accept and unfavorable settlement [SFB].
2159 [Y 43]The Lyrans defeat the Hydran invasion, but reach a negotiated settlement rather than continue the war. The first Lyran-Hydran War ends [SFB].
16 June [reference stardate 1/0606.16]Star Fleet's 150th Combat Squadron, under the command of Admiral Rex Gunther, meets a solitary Romulan U-13 class cruiser near Eta Leonis VI. Instead of attacking, Admiral Gunther follows Thorpe's instructions, opens known Romulan hailing frequencies, and warns the invading ship of his or- ders. Gunther gives the Romulan government six months to respond. Other- wise, it means war. Though the Romulan ship does not communicate, it is permitted to depart with the warning. This marks the sole meeting of Fed- eration and Romulan warships without bloodshed on either side [FASA].
14 October [reference stardate 1/0610.14]Since Admiral Gunther issued his warning, at least one Federation warship has remained in the vicinity of Eta Leonis VI, awaiting a Romulan response. The U.S.S. "Patton", a brand-new "Marshall" class destroyer, is the ship on picket duty when three U-15 class cruisers close, in the Tri-Beta Sector advancing on the Rigel star system. While decelerating, the Romulans open fire. They have 4 laser banks per ship with a regeneration delaty of 24.3 seconds. The "Patton's" Captain Joseph Spadora makes one transmission be- fore a Romulan cruiser fires a single guided missile. The torpedo his the side of the "Patton", totally disintegrating it. Spadora's message is re- ceived by other vessels in the area and relayed throughout the Federation. The Romulans' intentions are clear, and war is declared [FASA, SFC].
Intercepted subspace radio communications are translated and analyzed to help the U.F.P. understand their foe. The Romulan War calls attention to the strategic importance of the Triangle [FASA].
The U.F.P. confronts the Romulans near the Rigel Star System [SFC].
In the "Mirror" universe, war with the Romulan Federation begins as empire forces are confronted near the remains of Rigel II [TBoT #14].
Warp Drive ambulances are rushed into service as Federation casualties mount [SFC].
2160 [reference stardate 1/07]War continues as the Romulans penetrate the interplanetary security of the Sector 5B Mining Complex, destroying this important Federation resource [SFC].
The Sector 7 Wing Fleet is victorious over one entire Romulan armada [FASA].
February [reference stardate 1/0702] The first of scores of individual ship-versus-ship and ship-versus-outpost encounters occur throughout this period of the Romulan War. Each side wins several if these confrontations, but more often, the opposing forces suc- cessfully destroy one another. This will continue on for over two years [FASA].
S'chn T'gai Sarek is born in ShiKahr, Sas-a-Shar on Vulcan [JB].
The last Danon is born on Heartland (NC513-II) [ON 13].
Gene Roddenberry commands the DY-1200 ship V.K. "Velikan" on a mission into the Ficus sector to explore strange, new worlds [TNG 144].
2161, February [reference stardate 1/0802]Continuing their advance into Federation space, Romulan ships form 'wolf packs' to attack Federation transports. Three escorted Federation convoys are attacked and destroyed in this manner. Officials believe Romulans are hijacking the cargoes before destroying the transports. As they press deeper into Federation space, the Romulans are becoming desperately short of supplies [FASA].
The Quantum II 'time warp' star drive is developed. This PB-series circ- umferential (2nd generation) warp drive, based upon an exponential scale of time warp factors, will enable the "Horizon/Archon" class starships to extend the boundaries of the U.F.P. by hundreds of parsecs [STM, HCE].
Deneva is colonized as a trading-line base [OA]. An unspecified federation is founded [TNG 217].
A Star Fleet Academy is established in San Francisco on Earth [TNG 219].
         
         
Notes: including explanation of acronyms, etc.
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